DOI: https://doi.org/10.30977/AT.2219-8342.2020.47.0.69

Концепція уніфікованої системи екологічного маркування дорожніх транспортних засобів

Oleksiy Klymenko

Анотація


Розповсюдження різноманітних та несумісних схем обмеження доступу транспортних засобів, зокрема зон з низьким рівнем викидів, що постійно збільшується, створює надзвичайну фрагментацію правил доступу до транспортної інфраструктури європейського континенту, де автомобільний транспорт стає дорожчим, незручним та таким, що створює зайві бар'єри, перешкоджаючи економічному розвитку та міжрегіональним зв’язкам. Вищезазначене визначає гостру потребу в уніфікованій системі екологічного маркування дорожніх транспортних засобів як вирішального елементу будь-якої системи регулювання зон з низьким рівнем викидів, а також екологічного маркетингу та впливу на прийняття рішень споживачами на користь вибору екологічно сприятливих транспортних засобів. Основною метою дослідження є розроблення концепції уніфікованого екологічного маркування транспортних засобів для поєднання в стабільній системі минулих, сучасних та майбутніх технологій дорожніх транспортних засобів. Метод дослідження базується на концептуальній основі щодо структури даних екологічного маркування дорожніх транспортних засобів, необхідних для забезпечення екологічного маркетингу та управління доступом транспортних засобів до інфраструктури відповідно до аналізу позитивного та негативного досвіду безпосередньо в цій сфері, відповідних детермінант та рушійних факторів, а також питань. Дослідження визначає системний аналіз світового досвіду у сфері екологічного маркування дорожніх транспортних засобів з акцентом на диференціації доступу до зон з низьким рівнем викидів. Досліджено декілька аспектів з метою аналізу позитивного та негативного досвіду, зокрема дискредитованих зон з низьким рівнем викидів або зон з низькою ефективністю щодо зменшення забруднення повітря. Ідентифіковані ключові фактори, що призводять до невдач запровадження зон з низьким рівнем викидів або їхньої низької ефективності. Запропонована концепція уніфікованого екологічного маркування транспортних засобів не тільки поєднує в стабільній системі колишні, нинішні та майбутні технології і не тільки є технологічно нейтральною, але й об'єднує на єдиній основі, в єдину глобальну систему транспортні засоби, розроблені, затверджені та вироблені за несумісними екологічними стандартами, що впроваджені в різних регіонах світу.


Ключові слова


экологическая маркировка транспортных средств; выбросы загрязняющих веществ; экологические маркеры; окружающая среда; управление зонами с низкими выбросами; транспорт; ограничение доступа транспортных средств; колесные транспортные средства

Повний текст:

PDF (English)

Посилання


Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020b). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Overview of website. Available at: https://www.urbanaccessregulations.eu/userhome/general-overview.

Impacts of the Paris low-emission zone and implications for other cities / Bernard, Y., Miller, J., Wappelhorst, S., Braun, C. FIA Foundation. Available at: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Paris-LEV-implications-03.12.2020.pdf.

Amundsen, A. H., and Sundvor, I. (2018). Low Emission Zones in Europe Requirements, enforcement and air quality. TØI report 1666/2018. Available at: https://www.toi.no/getfile.php?mmfileid=49204.

Study on Urban Vehicle Access Regulations (Final Report) / Ricci, A., Gaggi, S., Enei, R., Tomassini, M. (2017). European Commission, Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. DOI:10.2832/64096.

EES European Eco Service GmbH (2020). The central portal for all European environmental zones. Available at: https://www.green-zones.eu/en.

Grand Voyage (2020). Экологические зоны и другие ограничения движения в Европе. Available at: https://krass56.ru/ecological_zones_in_the_cities_of_europe_restrictions_for_cars.html.

ACEA (2019b). ACEA Tax Guide (2019). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/news_documents/ACEA_Tax_Guide_2019.pdf.

Crit`air (2018). Different types of environmental badges in France generates confusion – commercial transport and tourism are threatened by fees. Homepage on Crit`Air. Available at: https://www.lez-france.fr/en.html.

C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (2019). How to design and implement a clean air or low emission zone. Available at: https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/How-to-design-and-implement-a-clean-air-or-low-emission-zone?language=en_US.

Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020c). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Low Emission Zones (LEZs). Available at:https://www.urbanaccessregulations.eu/low-emission-zones-main

Transport and Environment (2020). Expected effects from the low emission zone on car fleet and air quality in the Brussels region. Available at: https://lez.brussels/medias/lez-note-en-vdef.pdf?context=bWFzdGVyfGRvY3VtZW50c3w4NzEwNjI3fGFwcGxpY2F0aW9uL3BkZnxkb2N1bWVudHMvaGFiL2gzYy84ODAxNjI2Njg1NDcwLnBkZnxlNGNhYmZmYTh-mYjQ0MTczODE3MmU3MzYyYzc2ODdiOGZjYWFkOGY-yNzNjZWM4OTA4MmJiYmU2NTgwMGVhOGFl.

Transport & Environment (2019). Low-Emission Zones are a success – but they must now move to zero-emission mobility. Available at: https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/2019_09_Briefing_LEZ-ZEZ_final.pdf.

Christiane, M., and Frauke, S. (2014). The impact of Low Emission Zones on particulate matter concentration and public health, in: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 77, 205, 372-385, DOI:10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.029.

Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020a). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Impact of Low Emission Zones. Available at: https://urbanaccessregulations.eu/low-emission-zones-main/impact-of-low-emission-zones.

Gehrsitz, M. (2017). The effect of low emission zones on air pollution and infant health, in: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Volume 83. 121–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2017.02.003.

Implementation of a low emission zone and evaluation of effects on air quality by long-term monitoring, in: Atmospheric Environment / Panteliadis, P., Strak, M., Hoek, G., Weijers, E. (2014). Volume 86. 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.12.035.

Morfeld P, Groneberg D. A., Spallek M. (2014). Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German Citie, in: PLoS ONE 9(8): e102999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.

Holman, C., Harrison, R., Querol. X. (2015). Review of the efficacy of low emission zones to improve urban air quality in European cities, in: Atmospheric Environment. Volume 111. 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.009.

Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America / Klymenko, O., Ustymenko, V., Kolobov, K., Rychok, S. (2019). SAE Int. J. Sust. Trans., Energy, Env., & Policy 1(1):2019, https://doi:10.4271/13-01-01-0001.

European Commission (2011). Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system (White paper 2011). Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-con-tent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144&from=EN.

ACEA (2015). Low Emission Zones. ACEA Position Paper (2015). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/ACEA_LEZ_Position_May_2015.pdf.

European Commission (2017). Study on urban vehicle access regulations. Final report. By IS-INNOVA and PWC. April 2017. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/uvar_final_report_august_28.pdf.

Evaluation of Directive 1999/94/EC ("the car labelling Directive") / Gibson, G., Tsamis, A., Cesbron, S., Biedka, M., (2016). Final report (Ricardo Energy & Environment, study contract no. 340201/2015/710777/SER/CLIMA.C.2). Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/transport/vehicles/labelling/docs/car_labelling_final_report20160728_en.pdf.

Yang, Z., Zhu, L., and Bandivadekar, A. (2015). A Review and Evaluation of Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Labeling and Consumer Information Programs (the International Council on Clean Transportation, APEC Project: EWG 05/2014A). Available at: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/VFEL%20paper%20ICCT_%20for%20APEC%20-%2012%20Nov%202015%20FINAL.pdf.

Mock, P. (2013). Fuel economy labels: Focus on non-EU countries (IEA Paris, 2013). Available at: https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/imports/events/184/02.ICCT.130430ICCTCO2labelingoutsideEU.pdf.

VCA (2020). Environmental labels 2020: Explanation of fields used. Available at: https://www.vehicle-certification-agency.gov.uk/additional/files/fcb--co2/point-of-sale-pos-system/Environmental%20labels%202020%20-%20guidance%20for%20industry-%20ver%201.1.pdf.

ECORYS (2014). Feasibility Study: European City Pass for Low Emission Zones, Annex A: Standards and Guidance Document. Available at: https://urbanaccessregulations.eu/images/Reports/EU_draft_guidance_LEZ_Final_Report_Standards_and_Guidance_submitted.pdf.

Haq, G., Weiss, M. (2016). CO2 labelling of passenger cars in Europe: Status, challenges, and future prospects. Energy Policy Volume 95. 324–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.04.043.

Labels as nudges? An experimental study of car ecolabels / Codagnone, C., Veltr. G. A., Boglia-cino, F., Lupiáñez-Villanueva F. (2016). Econ Polit 33, 403–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40888-016-0042-2.

Firkl, S. and Raimond, W. Fuel economy labelling of cars and its impacts on buying behaviour, fuel efficiency and CO2 reduction. Available at: https://p2infohouse.org/ref/17/16366.pdf.

ANEC (2014). Empower EU consumers through visible and clear labelling information on CO2 emissions from new passenger cars. Available at: https://www.beuc.eu/publications/beuc-x-2014-053_cca_cars_co2_labelling-2014_anec-beuc_position_paper_long_version.pdf.

The effects of ecolabels on environmentally- and health-friendly cars: an online survey and two experimental studies / Folkvord, F., Veltri, G. A., Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F., Tornese, P. (2020). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 25, 883–899.: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-019-01644-4.

William Brazil and Brian Caulfield (2017). Current Status and Potential Role of Eco-labels in Informing Environmentally Friendly Purchases and Behaviours. Report No. 235., EPA. Available at: http://www.epa.ie/pubs/reports/research/econ/Research_235_report.pdf.

Chowdhury, M., Salam, K. and Tay, R. (2016). Consumer preferences and policy implications for the green car market. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 34 No. 6. 810–827. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-08-2015-0167.

Yusof, J. M., Bariam Singh, G. K., Razak, R. A. (2013). Purchase Intention of Environment-Friendly Automobile. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences Volume 85, 400-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.369.

Russo, A., Morrone, D., Calace, D. (2015). The Green Side of the Automotive Industry: A Consumer-Based Analysis. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness Vol. 9(2). Avail-able at: http://t.www.na-businesspress.com/JMDC/RussoA_Web9_2.pdf.

Effective environmental marketing of green cars: A nested-logit approach / Siriwardena, S., Hunt, G., Teisl, M. F., Noblet, C.L. (2012). Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment 17(3):237–242. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2011.11.004.

Morrone, D., Russo, A., and Calace D. (2015). The effectiveness of green marketing strategies in the automotive industry: a consumer based analysis. Centrum Strategii i Rozwoju Impact. Available at: http://www.csrtrends.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/02.CSR_D.Morrone_A.Russo_D.Calace.pdf.

Green marketing in the automotive sector: a comparative study in national and international research / Belli, H. C., Pizzinatto, N. K., Pizzinatto, A. K., (2018). UNIVERSIDADE METODISTA DE PIRACICABA UNIPINHAL – Centro Regional, 16:14. Available at: http://gerpisa.org/en/node/4463.

Jaderná, E., Boleslav, M., Přikrylová, J. (2018). Green solutions in automotive industry. MARKETING SCIENCE & INSPIRATIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS, MSI37. Available at: https://www.mins.sk/green-solutions-in-automotive-industry/.

Mahamuni, A., Tambe, M. (2014). Green marketing in automotive industry: understanding practices and implications in Indian context through literature review. GE-International Journal of Management Research, Volume-2, Issue-7. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/40209525/GREEN_MARKET-ING_IN_AUTOMOBILE_INDUSTRY_UNDERSTAND-ING_PRACTICES_AND_IMPLICATIONS_IN_IN-DIAN_CONTEXT_THROUGH_LITERATURE_REVIEW.

Salemi, M. R. & Namamian, F. (2016). Applying green market in the automotive industry. International Business Management 10 (20): 4767-4770. Available at: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/ibm/2016/4767-4770.pdf.

Križanová, A., Majerová, J. Zvaríková, K. (2013). Green Marketing as a Tool of Achieving Com-petitive Advantage in Automotive. Transport. Proceedings of 17th International Conference. Transport Means. 2013. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260390860_Green_marketing_as_a_tool_of_achieving_competitive_advantage_in_automotive_transport.

Milieusticker voor Duitsland. Everything about the German emissions sticker. Available at: https://www.germanemissionssticker.com.

ADVANTAGE AUSTRIA (2018). Austrian emissions stickers: new compulsory labelling for foreign HGVs. Available at: https://www.advantageaustria.org/gb/oesterreich-in-united-kingdom/news/lokal/20140515_LKW-Kennzeichnungspflicht_NEU.en.html.

ETA. Emissions stickers for driving in France. Available at: https://www.eta.co.uk/2017/09/13/emissions-stickers-for-driving-in-french-cities/.

UKPIA – United Kingdom Petroleum Industry Association (2019). UK New Car Environmental Label. Available at: https://www.ukpia.com/policy-focus/climate-change-and-environment/new-car-environmental-label/.

Eurocampings (2019). Emissions stickers: the rules for each country (2019). Available at: https://www.eurocampings.co.uk/blog/listing/emissions-stickers-rules-for-each-country-2019/.

Tolls.eu (2020). Motorway toll in European countries. Available at: https://www.tolls.eu/european-countries.

ACEA (2019a). ACEA Position Paper Road Charging and the Eurovignette Directive (2019). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/ACEA_Position_Paper-Road_Charging_Eurovignette_November_2019.pdf.

Defining road and rail vehicles with a low envi-ronmental footprint / Poulikakos, L., Heutschi, K., Soltic, P., Cerny, I. (2018). E! 7219 Ecovehicle final report. Available at: https://www.empa.ch/documents/55947/78785/Abschlussbericht+ecovehicle/2df10dce-7c7c-48bc-a794-ad3e689cad3e.

Hagman, R., Selvig, E. (2007). Environmentally Friendly Vehicles: Experiences and Definitions. TemaNord 2007:53, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 2007. Available at: https://energiatalgud.ee/img_auth.php/f/f1/Environmentally_friendly_vehicles.pdf.

Litman, T. (2019). Well Measured: Developing Indicators for Sustainable and Livable Transport Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available at: https://www.vtpi.org/wellmeas.pdf.

J. Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting / Hooftman, N., Oliveira, L., Messagie, M., Coosemans, T. (2016). Energies. 9. 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/en9020084.

Brennan, J. W. and Barder, T. E. (2017) Battery Electric Vehicles vs. Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles: A United States-Based Comprehensive Assessment. Arthur D. Little 2016. Available at: https://www.adlittle.com/en/insights/viewpoints/battery-electric-vehicles-vs-internal-combustion-engine-vehicles.

McKone, T. E., Hertwich, E. G (2001) The human toxicity potential and a Strategy for Evaluating Model Performance in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Int. J. LCA 6. 106–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977846.

Vaidyanathan, S., Slowik, P., and Junga, E. (2016). Rating the Environmental Impacts of Motor Vehicles: ACEEE’s greenercars.org Methodology 2016 Edition. Report T1601. Available at: https://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/t1601.pdf.

Letcher, T. M. and Valerro, D. A (2011). Waste: A Handbook for Management (2011). Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-381475-3. Available at: https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/9518829.

EPA (2020). Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) Model. US EPA (2020). Available at: https://www.epa.gov/rsei/rsei-toxicity-weights

Kanchan, K., Gorai, A. K., Goyal, P. (2015). A Review on Air Quality Indexing System. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment Vol. 9-2. 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2015.9.2.101.

Marques, S. et al. (2014). Eco-rating Methodologies for Private Cars: Driving Cycle Influence. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 111. 682–691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.102.

By`strov, A. S., Varankin, V. V., Vilenskij, M. A. (1986). Временная типовая методика определения экономической эффективности осуществления природоохранных мероприятий и оценки экономического ущерба, причиняемого народному хозяйству загрязнением окружающей среды (Vremennaya tipovaya metodika opredeleniya ehkonomicheskoj ehffektivnosti osushchestvleniya prirodookhrannykh meropriyatij i ocenki ehkonomicheskogo ushcherba, prichinyaemogo narodnomu khozyajstvu zagryazneniem okruzhayushchej sredy). Москва: Экономика, 1986. 96 с. Available at: http://www.gostrf.com/normadata/1/4293854/4293854046.htm.

Екологія та автомобільний транспорт (Ekolohiia ta avtomobilnyi transport) / Gutarevych, Yu. F., Zerkalov, D. V., Hovorun, A. H., Korpach, A. O. (2006). Київ, 2006. 292 с. Available at: https://library.kre.dp.ua/Books/2-4%20kurs/Основи%20екології/Гутаревич_Ю._Ф._Екологія_автомобільного_транспорту_2002%20.pdf.

Klymenko, O. (2020). Results of research of the reduced emissions of pollutants by road vehicles of various environmental classes “Euro” as the basis of environmental hazard labeling». Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Issue 1/10(103). 42–52. DOI: 10.15587/1729-4061.2020.196985.

About the implementation of the national system of labelling of road vehicles regarding level of environment hazard / Klymenko, O., Sotsky, V., Shchelkunov, A., Kyrychenko, R.Y. (2020). Scientific and production journal «Автошляховик України». No. 1. 2–13. DOI: 10.33868/0365-8392-2020-1-261-2-13.

CPT Group GmbH. (2019) Worldwide Emission Standards and Related Regulations: Passenger Cars / Light and Medium Duty Vehicles. Available at: https://www.continental-automotive.com/getattachment/8f2dedad-b510-4672-a005-3156f77d1f85/EMISSIONBOOKLET 2019.pdf.

Comparative Study on the Differences between the EU and US Legislation on Emissions in the Automotive Sector / Nesbit, M., Fergusson, M., Colsa, A., Ohlendorf, J. (2016). European Parliament Directorate-General for internal policies. Institute for European Environmental Policy. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


1. Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020b). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Overview of website. Available at: https://www.urbanaccessregulations.eu/userhome/general-overview.

2. Impacts of the Paris low-emission zone and implications for other cities / Bernard, Y., Miller, J., Wappelhorst, S., Braun, C. FIA Foundation. Available at: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Paris-LEV-implications-03.12.2020.pdf.

3. Amundsen, A. H., and Sundvor, I. (2018). Low Emission Zones in Europe Requirements, enforcement and air quality. TØI report 1666/2018. Available at: https://www.toi.no/getfile.php?mmfileid=49204.

4. Study on Urban Vehicle Access Regulations (Final Report) / Ricci, A., Gaggi, S., Enei, R., Tomassini, M. (2017). European Commission, Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. DOI:10.2832/64096.

5. EES European Eco Service GmbH (2020). The central portal for all European environmental zones. Available at: https://www.green-zones.eu/en.

6. Grand Voyage (2020). Экологические зоны и другие ограничения движения в Европе. Available at: https://krass56.ru/ecological_zones_in_the_cities_of_europe_restrictions_for_cars.html.

7. ACEA (2019b). ACEA Tax Guide (2019). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/news_documents/ACEA_Tax_Guide_2019.pdf.

8. Crit`air (2018). Different types of environmental badges in France generates confusion – commercial transport and tourism are threatened by fees. Homepage on Crit`Air. Available at: https://www.lez-france.fr/en.html.

9. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (2019). How to design and implement a clean air or low emission zone. Available at: https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/How-to-design-and-implement-a-clean-air-or-low-emission-zone?language=en_US.

10. Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020c). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Low Emission Zones (LEZs). Available at:https://www.urbanaccessregulations.eu/low-emission-zones-main

11. Transport and Environment (2020). Expected effects from the low emission zone on car fleet and air quality in the Brussels region. Available at: https://lez.brussels/medias/lez-note-en-vdef.pdf?context=bWFzdGVyfGRvY3VtZW50c3w4NzEwNjI3fGFwcGxpY2F0aW9uL3BkZnxkb2N1bWVudHMvaGFiL2gzYy84ODAxNjI2Njg1NDcwLnBkZnxlNGNhYmZmYTh-mYjQ0MTczODE3MmU3MzYyYzc2ODdiOGZjYWFkOGY-yNzNjZWM4OTA4MmJiYmU2NTgwMGVhOGFl.

12. Transport & Environment (2019). Low-Emission Zones are a success – but they must now move to zero-emission mobility. Available at: https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/2019_09_Briefing_LEZ-ZEZ_final.pdf.

13. Christiane, M., and Frauke, S. (2014). The impact of Low Emission Zones on particulate matter concentration and public health, in: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 77, 205, 372-385, DOI:10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.029.

14. Sadler Consultants Ltd (2020a). Urban Access Regulations in Europe: Impact of Low Emission Zones. Available at: https://urbanaccessregulations.eu/low-emission-zones-main/impact-of-low-emission-zones.

15. Gehrsitz, M. (2017). The effect of low emission zones on air pollution and infant health, in: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Volume 83. 121–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2017.02.003.

16. Implementation of a low emission zone and evaluation of effects on air quality by long-term monitoring, in: Atmospheric Environment / Panteliadis, P., Strak, M., Hoek, G., Weijers, E. (2014). Volume 86. 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.12.035.

17. Morfeld P, Groneberg D. A., Spallek M. (2014). Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German Citie, in: PLoS ONE 9(8): e102999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.

18. Holman, C., Harrison, R., Querol. X. (2015). Review of the efficacy of low emission zones to improve urban air quality in European cities, in: Atmospheric Environment. Volume 111. 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.009.

19. Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America / Klymenko, O., Ustymenko, V., Kolobov, K., Rychok, S. (2019). SAE Int. J. Sust. Trans., Energy, Env., & Policy 1(1):2019, https://doi:10.4271/13-01-01-0001.

20. European Commission (2011). Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system (White paper 2011). Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-con-tent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144&from=EN.

21. ACEA (2015). Low Emission Zones. ACEA Position Paper (2015). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/ACEA_LEZ_Position_May_2015.pdf.

22. European Commission (2017). Study on urban vehicle access regulations. Final report. By IS-INNOVA and PWC. April 2017. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/uvar_final_report_august_28.pdf.

23. Evaluation of Directive 1999/94/EC ("the car labelling Directive") / Gibson, G., Tsamis, A., Cesbron, S., Biedka, M., (2016). Final report (Ricardo Energy & Environment, study contract no. 340201/2015/710777/SER/CLIMA.C.2). Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/transport/vehicles/labelling/docs/car_labelling_final_report20160728_en.pdf.

24. Yang, Z., Zhu, L., and Bandivadekar, A. (2015). A Review and Evaluation of Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Labeling and Consumer Information Programs (the International Council on Clean Transportation, APEC Project: EWG 05/2014A). Available at: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/VFEL%20paper%20ICCT_%20for%20APEC%20-%2012%20Nov%202015%20FINAL.pdf.

25. Mock, P. (2013). Fuel economy labels: Focus on non-EU countries (IEA Paris, 2013). Available at: https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/imports/events/184/02.ICCT.130430ICCTCO2labelingoutsideEU.pdf.

26. VCA (2020). Environmental labels 2020: Explanation of fields used. Available at: https://www.vehicle-certification-agency.gov.uk/additional/files/fcb--co2/point-of-sale-pos-system/Environmental%20labels%202020%20-%20guidance%20for%20industry-%20ver%201.1.pdf.

27. ECORYS (2014). Feasibility Study: European City Pass for Low Emission Zones, Annex A: Standards and Guidance Document. Available at: https://urbanaccessregulations.eu/images/Reports/EU_draft_guidance_LEZ_Final_Report_Standards_and_Guidance_submitted.pdf.

28. Haq, G., Weiss, M. (2016). CO2 labelling of passenger cars in Europe: Status, challenges, and future prospects. Energy Policy Volume 95. 324–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.04.043.

29. Labels as nudges? An experimental study of car ecolabels / Codagnone, C., Veltr. G. A., Boglia-cino, F., Lupiáñez-Villanueva F. (2016). Econ Polit 33, 403–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40888-016-0042-2.

30. Firkl, S. and Raimond, W. Fuel economy labelling of cars and its impacts on buying behaviour, fuel efficiency and CO2 reduction. Available at: https://p2infohouse.org/ref/17/16366.pdf.

31. ANEC (2014). Empower EU consumers through visible and clear labelling information on CO2 emissions from new passenger cars. Available at: https://www.beuc.eu/publications/beuc-x-2014-053_cca_cars_co2_labelling-2014_anec-beuc_position_paper_long_version.pdf.

32. The effects of ecolabels on environmentally- and health-friendly cars: an online survey and two experimental studies / Folkvord, F., Veltri, G. A., Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F., Tornese, P. (2020). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 25, 883–899.: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-019-01644-4.

33. William Brazil and Brian Caulfield (2017). Current Status and Potential Role of Eco-labels in Informing Environmentally Friendly Purchases and Behaviours. Report No. 235., EPA. Available at: http://www.epa.ie/pubs/reports/research/econ/Research_235_report.pdf.

34. Chowdhury, M., Salam, K. and Tay, R. (2016). Consumer preferences and policy implications for the green car market. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 34 No. 6. 810–827. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-08-2015-0167.

35. Yusof, J. M., Bariam Singh, G. K., Razak, R. A. (2013). Purchase Intention of Environment-Friendly Automobile. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences Volume 85, 400-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.369.

36. Russo, A., Morrone, D., Calace, D. (2015). The Green Side of the Automotive Industry: A Consumer-Based Analysis. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness Vol. 9(2). Avail-able at: http://t.www.na-businesspress.com/JMDC/RussoA_Web9_2.pdf.

37. Effective environmental marketing of green cars: A nested-logit approach / Siriwardena, S., Hunt, G., Teisl, M. F., Noblet, C.L. (2012). Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment 17(3):237–242. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2011.11.004.

38. Morrone, D., Russo, A., and Calace D. (2015). The effectiveness of green marketing strategies in the automotive industry: a consumer based analysis. Centrum Strategii i Rozwoju Impact. Available at: http://www.csrtrends.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/02.CSR_D.Morrone_A.Russo_D.Calace.pdf.

39. Green marketing in the automotive sector: a comparative study in national and international research / Belli, H. C., Pizzinatto, N. K., Pizzinatto, A. K., (2018). UNIVERSIDADE METODISTA DE PIRACICABA UNIPINHAL – Centro Regional, 16:14. Available at: http://gerpisa.org/en/node/4463.

40. Jaderná, E., Boleslav, M., Přikrylová, J. (2018). Green solutions in automotive industry. MARKETING SCIENCE & INSPIRATIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS, MSI37. Available at: https://www.mins.sk/green-solutions-in-automotive-industry/.

41. Mahamuni, A., Tambe, M. (2014). Green marketing in automotive industry: understanding practices and implications in Indian context through literature review. GE-International Journal of Management Research, Volume-2, Issue-7. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/40209525/GREEN_MARKET-ING_IN_AUTOMOBILE_INDUSTRY_UNDERSTAND-ING_PRACTICES_AND_IMPLICATIONS_IN_IN-DIAN_CONTEXT_THROUGH_LITERATURE_REVIEW.

42. Salemi, M. R. & Namamian, F. (2016). Applying green market in the automotive industry. International Business Management 10 (20): 4767-4770. Available at: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/ibm/2016/4767-4770.pdf.

43. Križanová, A., Majerová, J. Zvaríková, K. (2013). Green Marketing as a Tool of Achieving Com-petitive Advantage in Automotive. Transport. Proceedings of 17th International Conference. Transport Means. 2013. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260390860_Green_marketing_as_a_tool_of_achieving_competitive_advantage_in_automotive_transport.

44. Milieusticker voor Duitsland. Everything about the German emissions sticker. Available at: https://www.germanemissionssticker.com.

45. ADVANTAGE AUSTRIA (2018). Austrian emissions stickers: new compulsory labelling for foreign HGVs. Available at: https://www.advantageaustria.org/gb/oesterreich-in-united-kingdom/news/lokal/20140515_LKW-Kennzeichnungspflicht_NEU.en.html.

46. ETA. Emissions stickers for driving in France. Available at: https://www.eta.co.uk/2017/09/13/emissions-stickers-for-driving-in-french-cities/.

47. UKPIA – United Kingdom Petroleum Industry Association (2019). UK New Car Environmental Label. Available at: https://www.ukpia.com/policy-focus/climate-change-and-environment/new-car-environmental-label/.

48. Eurocampings (2019). Emissions stickers: the rules for each country (2019). Available at: https://www.eurocampings.co.uk/blog/listing/emissions-stickers-rules-for-each-country-2019/.

49. Tolls.eu (2020). Motorway toll in European countries. Available at: https://www.tolls.eu/european-countries.

50. ACEA (2019a). ACEA Position Paper Road Charging and the Eurovignette Directive (2019). Available at: https://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/ACEA_Position_Paper-Road_Charging_Eurovignette_November_2019.pdf.

51. Defining road and rail vehicles with a low envi-ronmental footprint / Poulikakos, L., Heutschi, K., Soltic, P., Cerny, I. (2018). E! 7219 Ecovehicle final report. Available at: https://www.empa.ch/documents/55947/78785/Abschlussbericht+ecovehicle/2df10dce-7c7c-48bc-a794-ad3e689cad3e.

52. Hagman, R., Selvig, E. (2007). Environmentally Friendly Vehicles: Experiences and Definitions. TemaNord 2007:53, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 2007. Available at: https://energiatalgud.ee/img_auth.php/f/f1/Environmentally_friendly_vehicles.pdf.

53. Litman, T. (2019). Well Measured: Developing Indicators for Sustainable and Livable Transport Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available at: https://www.vtpi.org/wellmeas.pdf.

54. J. Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting / Hooftman, N., Oliveira, L., Messagie, M., Coosemans, T. (2016). Energies. 9. 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/en9020084.

55. Brennan, J. W. and Barder, T. E. (2017) Battery Electric Vehicles vs. Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles: A United States-Based Comprehensive Assessment. Arthur D. Little 2016. Available at: https://www.adlittle.com/en/insights/viewpoints/battery-electric-vehicles-vs-internal-combustion-engine-vehicles.

56. McKone, T. E., Hertwich, E. G (2001) The human toxicity potential and a Strategy for Evaluating Model Performance in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Int. J. LCA 6. 106–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977846.

57. Vaidyanathan, S., Slowik, P., and Junga, E. (2016). Rating the Environmental Impacts of Motor Vehicles: ACEEE’s greenercars.org Methodology 2016 Edition. Report T1601. Available at: https://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/t1601.pdf.

58. Letcher, T. M. and Valerro, D. A (2011). Waste: A Handbook for Management (2011). Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-381475-3. Available at: https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/9518829.

59. EPA (2020). Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) Model. US EPA (2020). Available at: https://www.epa.gov/rsei/rsei-toxicity-weights

60. Kanchan, K., Gorai, A. K., Goyal, P. (2015). A Review on Air Quality Indexing System. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment Vol. 9-2. 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2015.9.2.101.

61. Marques, S. et al. (2014). Eco-rating Methodologies for Private Cars: Driving Cycle Influence. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 111. 682–691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.102.

62. By`strov, A. S., Varankin, V. V., Vilenskij, M. A. (1986). Временная типовая методика определения экономической эффективности осуществления природоохранных мероприятий и оценки экономического ущерба, причиняемого народному хозяйству загрязнением окружающей среды (Vremennaya tipovaya metodika opredeleniya ehkonomicheskoj ehffektivnosti osushchestvleniya prirodookhrannykh meropriyatij i ocenki ehkonomicheskogo ushcherba, prichinyaemogo narodnomu khozyajstvu zagryazneniem okruzhayushchej sredy). Москва: Экономика, 1986. 96 с. Available at: http://www.gostrf.com/normadata/1/4293854/4293854046.htm.

63. Екологія та автомобільний транспорт (Ekolohiia ta avtomobilnyi transport) / Gutarevych, Yu. F., Zerkalov, D. V., Hovorun, A. H., Korpach, A. O. (2006). Київ, 2006. 292 с. Available at: https://library.kre.dp.ua/Books/2-4%20kurs/Основи%20екології/Гутаревич_Ю._Ф._Екологія_автомобільного_транспорту_2002%20.pdf.

64. Klymenko, O. (2020). Results of research of the reduced emissions of pollutants by road vehicles of various environmental classes “Euro” as the basis of environmental hazard labeling». Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Issue 1/10(103). 42–52. DOI: 10.15587/1729-4061.2020.196985.

65. About the implementation of the national system of labelling of road vehicles regarding level of environment hazard / Klymenko, O., Sotsky, V., Shchelkunov, A., Kyrychenko, R.Y. (2020). Scientific and production journal «Автошляховик України». No. 1. 2–13. DOI: 10.33868/0365-8392-2020-1-261-2-13.

66. CPT Group GmbH. (2019) Worldwide Emission Standards and Related Regulations: Passenger Cars / Light and Medium Duty Vehicles. Available at: https://www.continental-automotive.com/getattachment/8f2dedad-b510-4672-a005-3156f77d1f85/EMISSIONBOOKLET 2019.pdf.

67. Comparative Study on the Differences between the EU and US Legislation on Emissions in the Automotive Sector / Nesbit, M., Fergusson, M., Colsa, A., Ohlendorf, J. (2016). European Parliament Directorate-General for internal policies. Institute for European Environmental Policy. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/